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Reference Shelf
  • Wrightslaw: Special Education Law, 2nd Edition
    Wrightslaw: Special Education Law, 2nd Edition
    by Peter W. D. Wright and Pamela Darr Wright
  • Executive Skills in Children and Adolescents: A Practical Guide to Assessment and Intervention (The Guilford Practical Intervention in Schools Series)
    Executive Skills in Children and Adolescents: A Practical Guide to Assessment and Intervention (The Guilford Practical Intervention in Schools Series)
    by Peg Dawson EdD, Richard Guare Phd
  • The Adolescent Psychotherapy Treatment Planner (PracticePlanners?)
    The Adolescent Psychotherapy Treatment Planner (PracticePlanners?)
    by Arthur E. Jongsma, L. Mark Peterson, William P. McInnis
  • The Child Psychotherapy Treatment Planner (PracticePlanners?)
    The Child Psychotherapy Treatment Planner (PracticePlanners?)
    by Arthur E. Jongsma, L. Mark Peterson, William P. McInnis
  • A Work in Progress: Behavior Management Strategies & A Curriculum for Intensive Behavioral Treatment of Autism
    A Work in Progress: Behavior Management Strategies & A Curriculum for Intensive Behavioral Treatment of Autism
    by Ron, Ph.D. Leaf, John McEachin, Jaisom D. Harsh
  • None Dare Call It Education: What's Happening to Our Schools & Our Children?
    None Dare Call It Education: What's Happening to Our Schools & Our Children?
    by John Stormer

When a school’s failure to follow IDEA’s procedures is more than just a mistake…

By Tyler S. St Cyr, Esq. 

Occasionally special education teams make mistakes and do not follow established rules during the special education process.  The law refers to these mistakes as procedural errors.  This term stems from a set of procedures that Congress requires schools to follow, to protect special education students and their parents.  See 20 USC 1415 to review these rights or for Vermont Parents, See the Special Education Procedural Rights Handbook.  While most mistakes do not result in major legal issues under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), there are three scenarios when a school’s violation of special education procedures may result in an actionable due process claim.  These three situations arise when the school’s error:

(i) Impeded the child's right to FAPE;

(ii) Significantly impeded the parent's opportunity to participate in the decision-making process regarding the provision of FAPE; or

(iii) Caused a deprivation of educational benefit.

(20 U.S.C. § 1415[f][3][E])

Let us unpack this a little bit.  For the first situation “(i) Impeded the child's right to FAPE”, some readers may be wondering what FAPE is. See 20 U.S.C. § 1415[f][3][E].  FAPE is an acronym for the term a “free and appropriate public education”, which means special education services, occurring through an IEP, at public expense, that meets the basic standards set by the state and the US Department of Education.    See 34 CFR 300.317.  FAPE is the basic thresh hold of services that schools are required to provide to students with disabilities.   Expanding on that definition a little bit more, the Supreme Court in Board of Educ. of the Hendrick Hudson Cent. Sch. Dist. v. Rowley (U.S.  1982), held that one indicator of FAPE being provided occurs “if the [IEP] was reasonably calculated to enable the child to achieve passing marks and advance from grade to grade.”  However, there are instances when the student has been promoted to the next grade and assigned passing grades, yet still has been deprived of FAPE.   In Cerra v. Pawling Central School District, the Second Circuit held that another indicator of  FAPE not being provided is when a school has provided special education services, but the student has either academically regressed or has not been able to consistently narrow the gap between their own academic skills and grade level expectations. 427 F.3d 186   (2nd Circuit, 2005).  The take away from this section is that a school’s failure to adhere to IDEA procedures is actionable if the error can be linked to the student not making enough progress. 

The second situation refers to a school’s procedural error that “(ii) significantly impeded the parent's opportunity to participate in the decision-making process regarding the provision of FAPE”.   See 20 U.S.C. § 1415[f][3][E].  The United States Supreme Court noted in Burlington School Committee,, v. Massachusetts Department of Education that  “one of the reasons Congress enacted special education procedures was “to insure the full participation of the parents and proper resolution of substantive disagreements.”  471 U.S. 359 (1985).  The take away from this scenario is that if a parent can show that a school’s error stopped the parent from meaningfully participating in the special education process, the school may be liable in a due process claim. 

For the third scenario a parent must show that the procedural violation “(iii) caused a deprivation of educational benefit” to the student.  See 20 U.S.C. § 1415[f][3][E]. This means if a school’s error caused the student to not receive benefit from her/his IEP, it may be liable to the student and parents.  An example of this standard can be seen in Corey H. v. Cape Henlopen School District, where a parent brought a school district to a due process hearing for going seven days over the allotted time frame to develop an IEP.    286 F. Supp. 2d 380, (D.  Del. 2003).  In Corey H., the court held that “although […] this seven day delay is regrettable, the Court concludes that it is only a de minimis deprivation of the Plaintiff's educational benefits.”   The court reasoned that the school’s isolated failure to stay within the required time frame to develop an IEP was too slight to result in the student missing educational benefits. The take away from this scenario is that for a school to be liable for making a one-time error, the parent needs to be able to point to the procedural error as having a limiting effect on the student’s education.  

Thinking about things in the big picture…

If a school has failed to do something they should be doing, let them know about it, in person and in writing.  If you trust the school, it is okay to take the wait and see approach to monitor whether they have fixed what you have asked them to.   From a pragmatic perspective, letting the school know what you are expecting of them is a critical part of working through special education problems.  From a legal perspective, being able to point to a paper trail that shows that the school had notice of what the parent was asking for goes a long way in helping attain your education goal.  On the flip side, it is also critical to your child’s education to be able to realize when your requests are being ignored or that the school is incapable of doing what you are asking them to do.    


Disability Based Bullying: Using T.K v. NYC Dept. of Education as a tool to understand a school’s liability

    By Tyler S St Cyr, M.S, CAGS

     This article is the first in a three part series about school based bullying.  In this article, we will be discussing legal actions a parent can take under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), using a state’s special education due process hearing system as well as the federal courts. 

            While at least 45 states have adopted legislation recognizing that students have a legal right to be free from bullying and harassment[fn. 1], some courts have even held that the first amendment further guarantees students the right to be free from abuse in schools[fn. 2].  For disability based bullying the United States Circuit Court of Appeals for the Second, Third, Seventh and Ninth Circuits have directly held that bullying of disabled students may also amount to a failure to provide a free and appropriate education (FAPE)[fn. 3].  IDEA requires schools to provide students with disabilities a FAPE in the least restrictive environment (LRE).  When bringing a claim under IDEA, the two most common types are: 1) the school’s failure to prevent bullying caused the student to suffer an educational loss that was so severe, that it stopped the student from receiving FAPE and/or 2) even though the school intervened when the student was bullied, the actions the school took to prevent further bullying caused the student to be placed in a setting that was not the least restrictive environment. 

            A recent case originating from the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York is illustrative of the liability a school district assumes when it has failed to take disability based bullying seriously.  In T.K v. New York City Department of Education, 779 F.Supp.2d 289 (E.D.N.Y, 2011),  the student, referred to as L.K, was a 12–year–old girl who was receiving special education services due to a learning disability.  Id. at 294.  During the 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 school years, L.K was repeatedly bullied by her school peers.  A school  paraprofessional testified that this included  “being ridiculed as well as  other children […] intentionally stay[ing] away from L.K. and [..] physically push[ing] her away for fun.”  The paraprofessional also witnessed other students trying to trip L.K and “then if she fell, well, then the teachers would get upset with her for making a scene.”  Id. at 296.  Another paraprofessional testified that students in her class would refuse to touch pencils after L.K. had touched them, as well as students laughing at her when she attempted to speak in class.  Id.  L.K.’s parent, T.K., believed that this “caused her daughter to resist attending school, hurt her academic performance, and damaged her emotional well-being.”  Id. at 297. 

     During both school years, her parents attempted to enlist the school personnel at P.S 6, in solving this problem, without success.  Court records show that her father reported to the principal, Lauren Fontana, “both in person and in writing” that his daughter was being bullied, but the issue was ignored.  Id. at 294.  The principal only acknowledged receiving two letters where bullying was specifically reported.  Id. at 297.  Beyond this, she could not recall taking any investigative action.  At a special education meeting, the principal refused to discuss the matter because she did not believe it was salient to the student’s special education programming.  Id. at 297.  A school paraprofessional also approached Ms. Fontana to report that she believed the student was being bullied, but again, the principal failed to intervene.  Id

     Inevitably, L.K’s parents removed her from P.S. 6 and enrolled her in the Summit School, a private school that had been accredited by the State of New York to provide educational and therapeutic services to learning-disabled students.  Later, her parents sought reimbursement for tuition expenses paid to the Summit school, from the NYC Department of Education, through a special education due process hearing.  Id. at 294.  The state hearing officer as well as an appellate review officer found that the bullying did not stop L.K. from receiving FAPE.  At this point, her parents had satisfied IDEA’s exhaustion requirement and were permitted to file a court complaint in the federal district court.  As discussed in my previous article titled When damages from IDEA violations are not really damages under IDEA, for claims involving remedies that could be sought under IDEA, individuals must first pursue the claim at the state hearing level.  IDEA grants federal district courts jurisdiction over special education claims only after a parent has exhausted this mechanism.

            After L.K’s parents had satisfied IDEA’s exhaustion requirement, they filed a complaint in the United States District Court for New York.  (see copy of complaint).  In it, the parents alleged that the district’s failure to intervene to stop the bullying deprived L.K. of FAPE, as guaranteed under IDEA.  The School District responded by requesting a summary judgment, which means the court had to decide on whether a factual dispute actually exists between both parties.  The Court denied the summary judgment for the claims relating to bullying, which meant that the parents were entitled to a trial to prove their case.  The court held that the district’s failure to intervene amounted to an actionable claim under IDEA, citing four key factors in its analysis:  1) Whether the student was bullied, and if so, did it occur because the student had a disability.  2)  The school’s awareness of the bullying 3) Whether the school failed to take steps to stop the bullying  and    4) Whether the school’s failure to intervene prohibited the student from receiving a free and appropriate public education, as guaranteed under IDEA.  

            For the first factor, the court held that witnesses’ reports were enough to reasonably establish a claim that bullying occurred.  For the second factor, the court held that there was enough information offered by the school as well as the parents to conclude that the school knew of the bullying.  This included “The principal acknowledge[ing] knowing about an incident of bullying … admit[ing] receiving letters that reveal incidents of bullying.” Id. at 316.   

      For the third factor, the court held that there was enough evidence to establish that even though the school knew of bullying occurring, it failed to act.  This included the principal “acknowledge[ing] asking L.K.’s parents to leave a meeting designed to discuss concerns about bullying. … [as well as] Aides who stated that they tried to bring the bullying to the attention of their superiors but were ignored.”  Id. at 316.  The court reasoned that

 “[w]hen responding to bullying incidents, which may affect the opportunities of a special education student to obtain an appropriate education, a school must take prompt and appropriate action.  It must investigate if the harassment … occurred.  If harassment occurred, the school must take appropriate steps to prevent it in the future.  These duties exist… regardless of whether the student has complained, asked the school to take action, or identified the harassment as a form of discrimination.”  Id. at 316. 

The court also cited an administrative guidance letter by the United States Department of Education Office of Civil Rights titled, Dear Colleague Letter: Bullying and Harassment, at 2 (Oct. 26, 2010), stating that the “[c]onduct need not be outrageous to fit within the category of harassment that rises to a level of deprivation of rights of a disabled student.  The conduct must, however, be sufficiently severe, persistent, or pervasive that it creates a hostile environment.” 

     For the fourth factor, the court held that there was enough evidence that the child experienced social withdrawal coupled with the fact that she was isolated from her peers, to the point that it inhibited academic growth, to reasonably conclude that she suffered an educational loss.  In making this determination,  the court reasoned that “[i]t is not necessary to show that the bullying prevented all opportunity for an appropriate education, but only that it is likely to affect the opportunity of the student for an appropriate education.”  IdThe court further reasoned that “[a]cademic growth is not an all-or-nothing proposition.  There are levels of progress.  A child may achieve substantial educational gains despite harassment, and yet she still may have been seriously hindered.”  Citations omitted Id. at. 316.


What should T.K mean to parents? 

1) If a student is being bullied, a parent needs to be as vocal as possible to school employees, regarding the bullying.  This is important for two reasons.  The first is if more people know about the problem, the greater chances that more people will be on the lookout and be able to intercede.  If your primary contact at the school has been a teacher, let at least several administrators in on the problem.  While most good teachers will have already alerted school administrators, this is not always the case and cannot be taken for granted that it has occurred.  The more individuals who are on notice of a student being bullied tend to result in more people trying to do the right thing, by intervening.  It is also important because the school needs to be on notice about bullying each time it occurs.  Don’t compile a laundry list of instances to present to the school.  The longer one waits to report it, the more difficult it is for the school to take effective action to prevent.  Also, with each new report of a bullying act, a parent should expect the school to conduct another inquiry, looking into the facts and circumstances as well as alternative solutions to prevent it from reoccurring. 

2) A common response by schools that handle bullying poorly and are being litigated against, is that they were unaware of bullying.  The reason schools make this argument is that one of the essential elements to a school being held liable in civil complaints brought under IDEA is that a parent must prove that persistent and severe bullying occurred and also that the school knew about it and failed to intervene.  If a school successfully argues that it didn’t have any knowledge of it, its duty to intervene evaporates.  T.K was a good example of multiple school employees knowing about bullying, including the building administrator, yet failing to intervene appropriately.  Even though several paraprofessionals tried to take action, the school failed to intervene from a systems level, causing the bullying to persist.  In T.K, to the parent’s credit, they used multiple modes of communication, with the school, that included verbal and written reports.  The parents also used every meeting with the school as an opportunity to communicate their concerns.  The parents’ persistence illuminated the school’s knowledge of the bullying and its failure to respond to it from a system-based perspective.  

3)  When communicating these issues to the school, be respectful, but persistent.  Despite any bad feelings that have arisen, it is likely that you will be interacting with the school for some time to come.  Work hard at preserving a productive relationship. 


[1] See Administrative Guidance Letter by Arne Duncan, Secretary of Education, titled Secretary of Education Bullying Law and Policy Memo, Dec. 16, 2010,

[2] See Harper v. Poway Unified Sch. Dist., 445 F.3d 1166, 1178 (9th Cir.2006), vacated as moot, 549 U.S. 1262, 127 S.Ct. 1484, 167 L.Ed.2d 225 (2007)  a first amendment case holding that the right to be left alone includes the right to be free from not only physical attacks but  “ but from psychological attacks that cause young people to question their self-worth and their rightful place in society.”) (internal quotations and citation omitted)

 [3] See  T.K v. New York City Department of Education, 779 F.Supp.2d 289,312-313 (E.D.N.Y, 2011) for a circuit by circuit analysis of the applicable standards used in finding that disability based bullying may amount to a failure to provide FAPE. 



When a failure to provide peer reviewed special education services turns into a failure to provide a free and appropriate education (FAPE)

By Tyler S St Cyr, M.S, CAGS

      A school has a legal duty to provide special education programming that has been peer reviewed, but a school is also free to choose the teaching methodology it uses.  This means parents have a right to expect that what the school is proposing is an educational practice that has been studied and evaluated, rather than a hodgepodge of loose ends.  It also means that educators have some leeway, in terms of choosing how they will service specific learning needs.  But where exactly is this dividing line between a school’s choice of educational methodology and the parent’s right to expect special education services that have been supported by research?    

     The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires  “a statement of the special education and related services and supplementary aids and services, based on peer-reviewed research to the extent practicable”.   20 USC 1414 (d)(1)(A)(i)(IV).  As the underlined text indicates, exceptions always exist.  One exception is when a school is trying to service a learning problem where there is limited methodological data.  An example is when a school is trying to service just one aspect of a really unique learning need, such as an executive functioning weakness in a hearing-impaired student.  While oodles of pedagogical research exist regarding each of those areas independently, it is unlikely that much peer reviewed programming exists specifically for special education interventions oriented toward hearing impaired students with cognitive weaknesses in executive functioning.  Of course, the uniqueness of a learning problem does not absolve the district from providing effective services.  The district is still bound to implement an IEP that is “reasonably calculated to afford meaningful progress” as set out in Bd. of Educ. v. Rowley, 458 U.S. 176 (1982), but a school’s methodology not being peer reviewed is not, in itself a FAPE deprivation.  A school may be relieved of this requirement if it uses an unresearched method that has credence in professional circles and is carried out by qualified specialists.  The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit held that even though the autism program that the Rocklin School District was proposing was not peer reviewed; it did not deprive the student of FAPE because the methodology had been recognized as a “best practice” in the field of autism.  Joshua A. v. Rocklin Unified School District, 559 F.3d 1036 (9th Cir. 2009)

     A fair question is whether a school has failed to provide FAPE if its services are not peer reviewed.  The answer is sometimes:  If a student is not making IEP progress or the IEP does not address all areas of need, the parent may have a strong claim that the school deprived the student of FAPE.  If the student is making progress, the IEP services are robust and are provided by qualified specialists, it is unlikely that a hearing officer or court would find a FAPE violation.  As discussed in EdLaw Soup’s past article, The Anatomy of a Special Education Due Process Claim, a FAPE violation must have both procedural and substantive deprivations.  Most courts view IDEA’s peer review requirement, as a procedural violation.  This means that a parent would need to show that the school’s failure to implement peer reviewed special education programming, at least in part, caused some educational harm. 

If you find yourself disagreeing with your child’s special education programming ask yourself:

1.      Has the school’s methodology been peer reviewed? 

         a. If so, take some time and research whether it was designed specifically for kids with the same    learning problems as your child.  A good starting point is the What Works Clearinghouse.  This is a web site run by the United States Department of Education that catalogues thousands of educational programs used by schools. 

             i. If the services have been peer reviewed it is important to determine how well the school is  implementing it, from day to day. 

      b. If it has not, do more research to determine whether there are other programs/practices that have been peer reviewed for students with similar needs. 

2.  If the program has been peer reviewed, does it provide the level of intensity that matches your child’s needs?

        a.  Sometimes school districts will offer IEP services that are well founded in research, but are ineffective because they are mismatched to the student's needs.  Just like wearing a rain jacket during a snowstorm.  They are both designed to keep you dry, but only one is meant to keep you warm and dry. 

3. Are you satisfied with your student’s IEP progress?

       a. Remember, under the Supreme Court’s Rowley decision, the child isn’t guaranteed a program that will help her/him make maximum progress, but the progress does need to be more than trivial. 

4. If the student is making progress even though the program has not been peer reviewed, it is likely that the school has a decent argument that FAPE is being provided and that its methodology is the result of untested but professionally accepted best practices.

        a. CAUTION!  The concept of special education progress is very subjective.  Just because a student is receiving passing grades does not necessarily mean s/he is making progress.

5. If the student is not making progress, and the school is not using an educational methodology that has been peer reviewed, it is quite possible that the school is not providing FAPE and may be violating IDEA. 



Triennial and Independent Education Evaluations: A lawyer and former teacher’s perspective

By Gary H. Schall, Esq.    

     When a child qualifies for special education, a reevaluation must occur at least every three years.  Sometimes schools will attempt to convince parents to waive this evaluation.  Be careful before making this choice!

      The rule requiring re-evaluation of special education students under the Individuals with Disability Education Act (IDEA) requires that a re-evaluation “[s]hall occur at least once every 3 years, unless the parent and the LEA (Local Education Agency) agree that evaluation is unnecessary.”  (34 CFR §300.303).  Schools will sometimes try to convince a parent that a re-evaluation is unnecessary because there are few questions about the child’s current special education eligibility.  Sometimes, this is a legitimate recommendation, founded in a desire to spare the child from the drain of taking another test.  If the child is making progress, the parent(s) feels there are no issues and there is reliable information from other sources to guide the Individual Education Plan (IEP) team, maybe waiving the evaluation is okay.  But be aware and think this decision over carefully.  The evaluation’s purpose is much more than continued special education eligibility.  Waiving this evaluation will limit the information available to make smart decisions about what the child’s needs are and can also result in parents losing other important legal rights and safeguards.

      Why you should think twice about waiving a 3-year evaluation.  It is an excellent opportunity for the team to consider and review information that helps guide IEP decisions, tracks progress, provides baseline data which helps a team create appropriate educational goals and objectives.  It is also an important source of information about educational gains and losses, and a source of information about what has been tried that worked and didn’t work.  Most importantly, the triennial evaluation is an important safety check in our system of delivering special education services.  Moreover, it triggers important rights of parents to obtain an independent educational evaluation of their child.  Generally, a parent can only request an Independent Evaluation after they have disagreed with the school’s own evaluation.  The Vermont rule for Independent Educational Evaluations which comes from IDEA follows: 

2362.2.7 Independent Educational Evaluation (34 CFR §300.502)

An “independent educational evaluation” means an evaluation conducted by a qualified examiner who is not employed by the LEA responsible for the education of the child in question.

(a)          Upon completion of a LEA evaluation, a parent may request an independent educational evaluation at public expense if he or she disagrees with the evaluation obtained by the LEA. Except as provided in this rule, the LEA shall either pay the full cost of the requested evaluation, or ensure that the evaluation is otherwise provided at no cost to the parent.

             This Independent Educational Evaluation is especially important if there are any issues with the school regarding the IEP and the information the school has used to make its decisions.     In an ideal world, decisions about special education services would be based on the individual student’s needs.  However, economics, scarcity of resources, and other concerns often play a role in school decisions.  A school’s recommendation to evaluate can be influenced by budget constraints, policy decisions or just because the school does not want to highlight an expected lack of progress.     

     The U. S. Supreme Court in the case of Schaffer v. Weast 546 US 49 (2005), provides guidance on the importance of the Independent Education Evaluation,school districts have a “natural advantage” in information and expertise, but Congress addressed this when it obliged schools to safeguard procedural rights of parents and share information with them.  See School Comm. of Burlington v. Department of Ed. Of Mass., 471 U.S. 359, 368 (1985).  As noted above, parents have the right to review all records that the school possesses in relation to the child § 1415(b)(1).  They also have the right to an “independent educational evaluation of the[ir] child.” ibid.  The regulations clarify this entitlement by providing that a “parent has the right to an independent evaluation obtained by the public agency.” 34 CFR § 300.502(b)(1)(2005).  IDEA thus ensures parents access to an expert who can evaluate all the materials that the school must make available, and who can give an independent opinion.  They are not left to challenge the government, without realistic opportunity to access the necessary evidence, or without an expert with the firepower to match the opposition.  (cited directly from Schaffer v. Weast 546 US 49 (2005)

             Be careful before waiving the triennial evaluation.   If you do disagree with the school’s educational evaluation, let the school know in a simple written letter.   You are not required to, nor would it be fair to expect you to detail every reason why you disagree with the school’s evaluation.  Ask if the school has a policy with regard to Independent Education Evaluations, but do not be surprised if the school does not have one.  Get a copy of the policy, if there is one.  Know that the policy cannot interfere with your right for an Independent Educational Evaluation under IDEA.  Choose someone qualified and independent of the school.  This means talking to them beforehand. You may consider asking parent support groups for names of good evaluators with experience in evaluating children similar to yours. 

     After the Independents Educational Evaluation is completed it must be considered by the school in formulating the IEP.  A school’s willingness to do this tends to be important and relevant information to a due process hearing where you are trying to enforce education rights.  To learn more about Independent Evaluations click here to read what happened when the North Hampton, NH school district failed to consider an Independent Evaluation. 

Bio:     Gary H. Schall is a lawyer who worked in special education in the public schools.  He is the co-founder with Tyler St. Cyr of the New England Education Law Center, an advocacy group with a mission to help individuals understand and enforce their educational rights.




New England Education Law Center-A brand new special education resource

By Tyler S St Cyr, CAGS

Edlaw Soup is alive!  While Edlaw Soup may have become quiet over the past two months, it was for worthwhile reasons.  This past summer, a new special education advocacy group was started in Vermont, by attorney Gary H. Schall and Edlaw Soup’s creator, Tyler S St Cyr.    

While the New England Education Law Center intends to grow its web presence, our first and foremost goal is to assist families of northern New England with special education problems.  Keep checking back at Edlaw Soup for new and exclusive information in the coming weeks.  In the mean time, check out New England Education Law Center’s website.  If you like it, scroll to the bottom of the home page and show your support by clicking on the FaceBook “Like” icon.  More to come very soon!